一舉三得學英文

金 陵

November 27, 1999

英文閱讀(English reading)的目的除了為增加字彙(vocabulary)及增加片語(phrases)之外,主要的還是增進英文閱讀能力(reading ability)。但是如果我們選讀一篇經過刻意設計撰寫的文章(如下列十五句),不僅可以達到(1)上述的目的,尚可習得(2)保健常識,及(3)學習英文文法,此即是我所謂的一舉三得(to kill not two, but three birds with one stone)學英文。

因此,在我們選擇英文讀物時,應優先考慮內容具備另外兩種功能者。下列十五句英文即具備另兩種功能。這十五的內容是「保健需知」----(2)幫助我們習得保健常識。另外每句含有一個或兩個不定詞(infinitive)或不定詞片語(infinitive phrase),分別說明不定詞的各種用法----(3)幫助我們學習英文文法。

Health Suggestions

保健需知

1.     To keep the body physically fit should be the aim of every intelligent person.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句主詞。

2.     A practice that is both dangerous and expensive is to neglect the health until one is ill.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句主詞補語。

3.     If every person would try to follow the rules of right living, much of the misery in life would be eliminated.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句中"try"受詞。

4.     Deep breathing helps to stimulate the circulation; however, the breathing must be done slowly.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句中"help"受詞。

5.     One of he first steps in any good health program is to have the house well ventilated.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句主詞補語。

6.     A person who really wants to be healthy should take every opportunity to be out in the open air.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句中"want"受詞。

7.     One of the best ways to avoid a cold is to breathe plenty of fresh air.

紅色部分(1)是不定詞片語當形容詞用,形容 ways. 紅色部分(2)也是不定詞
片語,但當名詞用,作本句主詞補語。

8.     Windows should be opened at the top to let out the impure air; they should be opened at the bottom to let in the fresh air.

紅色部分(1)(2)均為不定詞片語當副詞用,分別修飭本句中前後兩個 be opened.

9.     Close stuffy rooms tend to lower the bodily resistance and to reduce vitality.

紅色部分(1)(2)均為不定詞片語當副詞用,修飭本句中的 tend.

10.  All colds are caused by germs; therefore, it is important to keep the mouth, nose, and throat clean.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句中 it 的同位語。

11.  Another way to avoid colds is to eat simple food and to keep the body clean.

紅色部分(1)是不定詞片語當形容詞用,形容 way,紅色部分(2)(3)均為不定
詞片語當名詞用,作本句主詞補語。

12.  Another way of improving the health is to learn to breathe properly.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句主詞補語。如再分析 to breathe
properly
,它也是不定詞片語當名詞用,作 to learn 的受詞。

13.  To cough or sneeze when one has a cold is dangerous for anyone who is near.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當名詞用,作本句主詞。

14.  A person who is in interested in cultivating good health should plan a systematic schedule to be followed each day.

紅色部分是不定詞片語當形容詞用,形容 schedule.

15.  To observe the rules of health is not always an easy thing to do, but to make the attempt is praiseworthy.

紅色部分(1)(3)是不定詞片語當名詞用,分別作為兩個主要子句的主詞。
紅色部分(2)是不定詞片語當形容詞用,形容 thing.

讀完以上十五句英文之後,我們是不是(1)增進了英文閱讀能力? (2)習得
了「保健」常識? 同時也(3)學習了英文文法呢? 這不就是一舉三得學英文嗎?


(
取材自拙著英語英文怎麼學一書中「一舉三得學英文)

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