樹上鳥在叫 vs. 鳥在樹上叫
(二之二)

金 陵
January 23, 2000

B. 前置詞片語

在前文五段之中,因為強調前置詞在英文句構中的重要性,所以只提前置詞,但每一個前置詞與它後面相關的字結合起來,就是一個前置詞片語(prepositional phrase),有的當形容詞用,有的當副詞用。例如:第五段中in the morningat night都是前置詞片語,當形容詞用,即早晨的彩虹與晚間的彩虹。第一段中in the bathroom與第二段中into the sea都是前置詞片語,當副詞用,即在浴室中入海中。現在再分別詳細說明如下:

(a) 當形容詞用

Which one? What kind of?(哪一個?哪一類?)

1. Variety is the spice of life. (變化是生活的香料。)
2. The students in my class are good in English.(我班上的學生英文很好。)

(b) 當副詞用:

1. How? (說明如何) Never judge by appearances.(勿以貌取人)

2. When? (說明何時) It rained a lot in April and May.

3. Where? (說明何處) The students who study in my school are diligent.

4. Why? (說明理由) She came for the birthday party.

5. Under what conditions? (說明情況) To an ant, a few drops of rain is flood.

熟能生巧(Practice makes perfect)。現用以下各句加強我們對前置詞當形容詞用,與前置詞當副詞用的認識。藍色表示當形容詞用,紅色表示當副詞用。

  1. Laughter is a tranquilizer with no side effects.
  2. Everyone on the team supports the head coach.
  3. Each man is a specialist in his particular type of work.
  4. We use many millions of postage stamps each year.
  5. All of the girls in her class are going to see the movie.
  6. Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime.
  7. The signature on the check is surely a forgery.
  8. There was a knowing smile on her face.
  9. The professor of English will give a lecture.
  10. She is telling the story of her colorful life.
  11. You can stroke people with words.
  12. They that sow in tears shall reap in joy.
  13. Do you often correspond with your parents?
  14. Shakespeare compared the world to a stage.
  15. Her personality differs considerably from yours.
  16. Considerable dissatisfaction existed among his students.
  17. Too many people die by car accidents.
  18. Language should be learned by the ear.
  19. Many English words are derived from Latin.
  20. He who runs after two hares will catch neither.

此外,我們也注意到,有的句中,不用形容詞,而用 of + 名詞取代形容詞。例如:
of + beauty = beautiful She is of beauty. of importance = important He is of importance.而有的句中,不用副詞,而用 by, of, in, on, with + 名詞取代副詞。

例如:

of + N= adverb(極少)

of late = lately

by + N = adverb

by accident = accidentally; by intention = intentionally

in + N = adverb

in brief = briefly; in comfort = comfortably; in general = generally

in haste = hastily; in peace = peacefully;in person = personally

in particular = particularly; in public = publicly;in vain = vainly

in secrecy = secretly; in silence = silently;in earnest = earnestly

on + N= adverb

on purpose = purposely

with + N = adverb

with ease = easily;with care = carefully

在中文中,只有一個「在」字,但在英文中,「在」字卻有很多,所以我們對前置詞的用法感到困難。「天下無難事,只怕有心人。」從這篇短文入手,再參考一些文法書,必能掌握。

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