J Q & A 1(1-20)J

金 陵

FAQ--Frequently Asked Questions

Q & A (問與答),本想用 FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions 常問的問題),以名副其實,但是卻不如 Q & A 耳熟能詳。本欄將以自問自答的方式呈現,暫不接受問題,因為本人要準備教材,打字,存檔,轉檔,上傳檔,及卸載檔等工作,且又是電腦新鮮人,及時而在網托邦英語教室中回答問題,實在太忙。本人從事英語教學多年,口頭回答過無數同學的問題,因此將以記憶所及,不定期自問與自答。

(1)

 

day and night vs. night and day

德恩奈 vs. 奈恩德

 

1999年底,東森新聞台午安新聞迎接千禧年倒數計時,見有關口腔保健的德恩奈
(day and night的音譯)產品廣告,如德恩奈三效牙膏,德恩奈兒童牙膏,德恩奈漱口水等。

一九九九年九月四日聯合報33頁有「一週一成語」,也以day and night(中文譯作「夜以繼日」)為例,並造句:

Mary knitted day and night to finish the sweater before her mother's birthday.在母親生日前,瑪利夜以繼日的完成了這件毛衣。(楊長江)

 

2000年一月七日中國郵報 (China Post) 頭版有一則新聞報導:James Soong (宋楚瑜) and his running mate Chang Chau-hsiung (張昭雄) also extended gratitude to some 6000 volunteers who had worked day and night binding the petitions(連署書).

 

美國克林頓總統在電視演講中不只一次地說過day and night.英國首相布萊爾在2000年二月三日正午12:05在CNN 談話中也說過day and night.但在頁556,Rewey Belle Inglis等著Adventures in American Literature中,作者在介紹美國著名散文作家及詩人愛默生的一篇名為Compensation(補償)的散文時說:The idea of balance in human life
night and day, good and evil, action and repose
was a favorite of his.

 

在頁700,A Complete Dictionary of English Phrases (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1925)中的例句:The earth moves night and day.

另在頁472,Dictionary of Current English Idioms(Tokyo: Kenkyusha Limited, 1975)中的例句:. . . as night follows day.

 

在以上文句及兩本字典中均用night and day, 為甚麼?

 

day and night是口語,非正式英文(informal English); night and day是文語

正式英文 (formal English)。正如中文中有「夜以繼日」(night and day) 及「日以繼夜」(day and night)一樣。「夜以繼日」是成語,而「日以繼夜」是誤用。後來以訛傳訛,而成了我們平日脫口而出的「日以繼夜」

 

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(2)

 

at weekends vs. on weekends

 

at weekendson weekends都是在週末週是指週六及週日。兩者不同的是
at weekends 是英國用法(British usage) ,而on weekends是美國用法(American usage).

例句:

What do you do at weekends? What do you do on weekends? (週末你都做什麼?)

What do you do at the weekend? What do you do on the weekend?(週末你都做什麼?)

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(3)

 

 To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness on earth.

 

Q. To love and to be loved 不是複合主詞(compound subject)嗎? 為甚麼用單數 is?

A. To love and to be loved 形式上看來是複數,但是它們表達的是一個意念(one idea)
 那就是「相愛」。如果譯為「被愛是世間最大的幸福」,看來是複數;但如
 果譯為「相愛是世間最大的幸福」,不就是單數了嗎? 況且單方面的愛不可能是世
 間最大的幸福,不是嗎? 所以是單數。再看兩個類似的例句:
 1. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. (one idea)
  --Benjamin Franklin  睡得早,起得早(兩者合一),身體好,賺錢多,頭腦好。

  早睡晚起可以身體好,賺錢多,頭腦好嗎?晚睡早起可以身體好,賺錢多, 頭腦
  好嗎? 都不可以。
  早睡早起,同時做到,缺一不可,方能達到目的。

 2. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. (one idea)
  一味用功不玩耍,聰明孩子變傻瓜。
  只是用功而不玩耍(兩者合一),聰明孩子才會變成傻瓜。

 

 3. Patience and perseverance is necessary for success.(one idea)

  patience忍耐 perseverance是堅持。忍耐堅持乃成功之本
  形式上看來是複數,但是它們表達的是一個意念(one idea)那就是「堅忍」。

 

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(4)

中、英文中的刪節號

 

Q.中英文中的刪節號有何不同?

A.英文中刪節號稱為triple dots(三點),而非中文中的六點。

 英文中刪節號只用於引號內,例句:She said, I have to take many courses; such as
 Chinese, English, Grammar, Conversation . . . . 如刪節號在句後,再加原句中句尾的
 標點符號。另英文刪節號不等於中文中「等等」。英文中「等等」用etc.(即拉丁
 et cetera 的略寫)。

 中文中的刪節號用六點,同時也可以用來表示「等等」。但如果用了六點之後,
 再用「等等」,那也不對,例如:. . . . . . 等等。

 

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(5)

中英文中的句點(句號)

 

Q.中英文中的句點(句號)有何不同?

A.中文原本沒有標點符號,中文古文中不見任何標點符號,例如:「民可使由之不
 可使知之」即是。後來使用英文標號。有了標點符號之後,我們可以將「民可使
 由之不可使知之」這句話,用標點符號表示出兩种不同意義:「民可使由之,不
 可使知之。」及「民可,使由之;不可,使知之。」 中文中的句點(句號)是我們
 創出來的,用圓圈(。),而英文是用一點( . )。它的英文名稱是period 或 full stop.
 在學生的英文作文中,或各种英文考試中,偶而可見誤用中文句號代替英文句 
 
號,一因未學習英文標點符號,一因習慣使然。
 例如: I have studied English for many years。

 

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(6)

 in danger vs. dangerous

 

Q. in danger與dangerous 有何不同?
A.in danger 是在危險中,dangerous是危險的。
 例如:He is in danger.  他身處險境。
    He is dangerous.  他是危險人物。
  out of danger 是脫險。
 例如:He is out of danger.  他已脫險。

 

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(7)

rainy season vs. raining season

Q. rainy seasonraining season有何不同?
A
. rainy season是正確的,raining season 是錯誤的。
 英法語法中的
分詞(participle)跟動名詞(gerund)都是在原形動詞後加 ing。只有在
 它們後面加一個名詞時,方能確定何者為
分詞何者為動名詞
 例如:
sleeping baby(睡覺中的嬰兒)中的sleeping是分詞
   = a baby that is sleeping.
  分詞的主要功能是形容詞
   sleeping car(臥車)中的 sleeping是動名詞
   =a car for sleeping. 動名詞的主要功能是名詞
。但在  sleeping car 中作形容詞
   
用。
   raining season 是錯誤的,它不等於 a season for raining, 因為人力不能將一個
   季節指定為雨季。但是
fasting month(齋戒月) = a month for fasting 是對的,
   為人力可以將一個月份指定為
齋戒月。其他如 sleeping bag = bag for sleeping,
   drinking water = water for drinking,  walking stick = stick for walking, spending
   money = money for spending, running shoes = shoes for running, hunting accident=
   accident in hunting, 都是動名詞形容詞用。

 

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(8)

out of the question vs. out of question

 

out of the question=impossible(不可能的)

Example: Their trip is out of the question: they have no money.

out of question---without any doubt, without question(無疑地),

現在己不用這個片語,而用without question 取代。

John is, without question, one of the best students in my class.

 

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(9)

 

successful story vs.  success story

 

Taiwan success story的意思是台灣成功的故事, 說明台灣是如何成功的。

Taiwan successful story的意思是有一個台灣的故事,它的內容精彩,情節動人,寫作技巧精湛,可說是一篇非常成功的故事。

 

例如: It is our teachers success story which he often tells us.

例如: It is a successful story which our teacher wrote years ago.

 

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(10)

which  vs.  in which

 

which是關係代名詞,可做主詞或受詞用。

1.      主詞:This is the house which/that has three bedrooms.

2.      受詞:This is the house which/that I bought three months ago.

 

in which 做副詞用= where

副詞: This is the house in which I lived for three years. (加強句)

   This is the house where I lived for three years.
   This is the house which I lived in for three years.
   This is the house that I lived in for three years. (口語)

   This is the house in that I lived for three years. (誤)
(用that做受詞用時,它的前面不可用in)

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(11)

 

Taipei City Government vs. Taipei City Hall

 

2000年6月14日晚上十點至十一點的有線電視TVBS-N整點新聞中,最後一則有台北市政府大樓背景資料片。片中市府大樓上的中文是「台北市政府」,英文是 Taipei City Government. 自從馬英九市長上任以後,電視新聞中見到市府大樓上的英文不再是Taipei City Government而是 Taipei City Hall. 這才是正確的,當晚的背景資料片應該是舊片,因為Taipei City Government是機構名稱,是平面的;Taipei City Hall 是建築物名稱,是立體的。

 

例如:  I have applied to Taipei City Government for a job. (我已向台北市政府申請一份工作)

例如:  I went to Taipei City Hall yesterday morning. (昨天早晨我去了一趟台北市政府)

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(12)

alma mater vs. mother school

 

母校是用拉丁文alma mater(小寫)或Alma Mater(大寫)。雖然英文有mother tongue(母語) mother country(祖國),但沒有mother school. 可用old school表示母校。

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(13)

at any time vs. anytime

 

1. at any time---是前置詞片語,作副詞用
  
例如You may come at any time.
2. anytime---是
副詞
  
例如You may come anytime

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(14)

result in vs. result from

 

1.      result in—導致
例如The traffic accident resulted in his injury.

2.      result from由於
例如His injury resulted from the traffic accident.

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(15)

at most  vs.  at the most

 

at most=at the most(最多,頂多)

例如: The summer remedial class(輔導課) will take five weeks at the most.

at least= at the least(至少)

The summer remedial class(輔導課)will take at least five weeks.

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(16)

tragic vs. tragical

tragic (悲劇的,悲慘的)

國內編纂的英漢字典都列有tragical 一字,並說明tragical=tragic但國外編纂英文字典都不再列tragical一字,只見1965年出版的Standard College Dictionary中有tragical一字,而且當我們在電腦上打tragical一字時,下面出現紅線,表示拼錯字或無此字。現代英文中巳不用tragical.  tragic的副詞是用tragically.

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(17)

what about vs. how about

 

what about(怎麼樣? 問某人或某事的情況)

例如: What about Helen? We can't let her go home alone late at night.

how about (如何? 問對方意見或建議)

例如: How about a cup of tea?  How about going to a movie?

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(18)

one hour and a half vs. one and a half hours

 

one hour and a half或one and a half hours(一個半小時)

兩者都可以說,但用one hour and a half比較好。

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(19)

be my guest vs. my treat

be my guest是答應他人要求時用語,即「請便」。

例如: May I read the newspaper on your desk?  Be my guest.

my treat 是我請客。

例如: Let's go to the university cafeteria.  My treat this time.

或:I'd like you to be my guest for dinner tonight.今晚我請吃飯.

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(20)

All we can do is to wait for the results. VS. All we can do is wait for the results.

 

Q. 那一句是正確的?
A. 兩句皆正確。口語常省略
to

 

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