J Q & A 2(1-20) J

金 陵

 Questions and Answers

(1)

那些動詞後用原形動詞(infinitive without “to” )?

 

動詞後用原形動詞(infinitive without to)的有:

behold(12 世紀前用字,現代英文中極少用),bid, feel, have, hear, let, make,

observe, perceive, see, watch, 另help後,可用to(英式英文)或不用to(美式英文)。

 

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(2)

play piano or play the piano

 

彈奏或演奏樂噐,在樂噐之前要加定冠詞 the.

例如:He plays the organ in the church on Sundays.

She practices playing the violin almost every day.

 

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(3)

 

sometime vs. some time vs. sometimes

 

1.      sometime:  (過去的)某一時候;來日,改天

例如:I stayed in Taichung sometime last summer. 去年夏天某個時候,我待過台中。

例如:Ill go to Taichung to see you sometime next summer. 明年夏天某個時候,我
去台中看你。

2.      some time: 一段時間

例如:I stayed in Taichung (for) some time last summer. 去年夏天,我在台中待過一段時間。

3.      sometimes: 有時候

例如:Sometimes I go to Taichung for business. 有時候我去台中出差。

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(4)
 

What a beautiful girl she is!  vs. How beautiful a girl she is!

 

兩句都是驚嘆句,意思一樣,只是一用what, 一用how開始。如用what開始,則是 what a + 形容詞;如用how開始,則是how + 形容詞。

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(5)

 

I have just received a letter from my father

vs.
I just received a letter from my father

 

Just當剛才或方才(a moment ago)解釋時,英式英文用現在完成式,美式英文用簡單過去式。但just now(剛才)不論英式英文或美式英文均用簡單過去式。

例如:I received a letter from him just now.

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(6)

go to bed vs. go to sleep

 

go to bed 是就寢,go to sleep是入睡。我們可以確知自己幾時、幾分、甚致幾秒就寢,但卻無法確知自己幾時、幾分入睡。

例如:I always go to bed at 11 oclock every night.
            I don
t know when I went to sleep last night.

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(7)

ago vs. before

 

ago 是現在的過去多久時間before是過去的過去多久時間。

例如:He transferred to another university two years ago. transferred過去式,是從說這句話時推算two years ago.
            He told me that he had transferred to another university two years
before.
told過去式,had transferred是過去裡的過去(past in the past),因為它發生在過去式told之前,此時時態要用過去完成式,並用before, 否則他可能是兩年前或三年前告訴(told)我,加兩年或三年便是四年或五年了,而非兩年前。

此外,在直接句改為間直接句時,如直接句中有 ago,間直接句中要改為 before.

例如:Direct: Joy said, I read that novel a year ago.
            Indirect: Joy said that she
had read that novel a year before.

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(8)

The house which I went into is big.
vs.
The house into which I went is big.

 

The house which I went into is big. 是一般的英文。

The house into which I went is big. 如將into 放在which之前,即是該句的加強句。

此外亦可寫為The house that I went into is big.( 非正式英文。)

但如寫為The house into that I went is big.因為that 作關係代名詞用時,前面不得用前置詞。

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(9)

形容詞子句中關代用 that 時與名詞子句如何區分?

 

1.      The fact THAT she has inner grace(內在美) is more important.

2.      The fact THAT we must recognize is the lack of respect for the old.

3.      I like the student THAT is gentle and respectful.(彬彬有禮)

第一句中THAT是連接詞,連接The fact與 she has inner grace.

THAT she has inner grace是名詞子句,作the fact的同位語,而且

she has inner grace可獨立成句。

在名詞子句中的THAT也稱為名詞子句的符號 (the sign of noun clause)。

 

第二句中THAT是關係代名詞,作為recognize的受詞,亦可用which代替它成為:

That fact WHICH we must recognize is the lack of respect for the old.

 

第三句中THAT也是關係代名詞,作為is gentle and respectful的主詞

第二、三句中we must recognize(無受詞)及is gentle and respectful(無主詞)

均無法獨立成句。

 

區分兩者的方法是:

a.       THAT在附屬子句中是否作主詞或受詞,如果是,則是形容詞子句。

b.      THAT在附屬子句中如果既非主詞,又非受詞,只有連接功能時,則是名詞子句。

 

摘譯自拙著p.134, Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric(實用英文文法與修辭. 第九版第五刷)

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(10)

on Taiwan  vs.  in Taiwan

 

在島上的「在」用 on英國人用 on但亦可用 in.  Taiwan 是一個島,所以用on in.

例如:He lives in (on ) Taiwan.

通常身在台灣的人說: We live in Taiwan.

身不在台灣的人說:     They live on Taiwan.

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(11)

 

always vs. never

 

always & never 均為頻率副詞 (adverbs of frequency),我們用百分比來細分它們的差異:

 

always—100% all of the time

usually—80% most of the time

often—50% much of the time

sometimes—30% some of the time

seldom—almost never

never—not at any time

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(12)

 

everyday vs. every day

everyday 是形容詞
例如:everyday life, everyday dialogue, everyday clothes(便服), etc.
            She wears everyday clothes every day after retirement.
           
He practices everyday English dialogue with his brother every day.
every day 是副詞片語或名詞片語在句子中作副詞用
例如:He goes to the park for a walk every day.( 副詞片語)
            Generally speaking, every day is a fine day in summer. (名詞片語)

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(13)

 

eat one’s words vs. break one’s words

 

eat one’s words 失言,為說錯話而道歉,承認自己的錯誤

例如:He ate his words at the meeting twice.

break one’s words 食言

例如:He never breaks his words. 他從不食言,他從不爽約。

 

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(14)

 

aim at vs. aim to

 

aim at  +  ving 企圖,意欲,瞄準目標

例如:Henry aimed at passing the Joint College Entrance Examination.

aim  +  to企圖,意欲,瞄準目標

例如:Henry aimed to pass the Joint College Entrance Examination.

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(15)

 

名詞food一字是可數或不可數名詞?

 

A. food 指食物通稱時,是不可數名詞,例如:food and drink(食物與飲料)。指食物種類時是可數名詞,例如:
1. Milk is a valuable
food.
2. She eats the plainest of foods. (她吃最清淡的食物)

3. My students eat too many sweet foods, like cakes and pastry.

其它如health foods(各種保健食品),baby foods (各種嬰兒食品)等。

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To be continued
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