BBS Q & A5(1-20)

金 陵

 Questions and Answers

本站為對英文有興趣之同學解惑,在「政大貓空BBS站」、「台大椰林風情BBS站」的英文板上,及在網托邦「英語教室板」上回答問題,並摘要選擇已回答的問題與答案,陸續登錄在本站BBS Q & A (1),(2),(3),(4),(5)中,供網友參閱。

(1)

have …in mind on one’s mind哪一個表示計畫?

 

A. havein mind表示計畫

1.      havein mind在想在計畫  例如:The teacher has some plan in his mind.

2.      on ones mind 掛念,擔心。           例如:She is very much on my mind.

3.      to ones mind 在某人看來。            例如:Most of my students  thought she was right,

                                                                        but to my mind she was not right.

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(2)

 

They are of the same age. 本句中Of是什麼意思

 

A. of意思是 「的」。
例如:of + 名詞 = 形容詞

of + importance = important;     of + beauty = beautiful     of + the same age = 同年齡的

所以They are(他們是) of the same age(同年齡的).

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(3)

donkey’s years是什麼意思?

 

A. donkeys years的意思是很長的時間。因為years    ears 是諧音,另外donkey有長耳朵 (long ears),所以donkeys ears即成了long years故有此口語。

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(4)

I think that…that 的詞性如何?

 

A.    that 的詞性是連接詞。  that有下列功能:

 

1.      連接詞或稱名詞子句的符號(the sign of noun clause) ----I know that he is a student.

2.      關係代名詞----The student that sat next to Mr. Wu is my classmate.

3.      指示形容詞----Who is that man?

4.      指示代名詞----That is my book.

5.      副詞----I cant speak English that well.(那樣地好)

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(5)

句子中間的 because 前到底有沒有逗號?

 

A. 可有,也可沒有
可有:She did not come, because she was too busy. (British usage英國用法)

可沒有:She did not come because she was too busy. (American usage美國用法)

如附屬子句在句首則寫為:Because she was too busy, she did not come.

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(6)

exceptbesides有何不同?

 

A. except---除了  之外 besides--除了  之外,還有;此外

例如:I learned several other foreign languages besides English.
我除了學習英語之外,還學習其他幾種外語。

例如:I go to school every day except Sunday.
除了週日(不上學)之外,我每天上學。

 

besides=in addition to(prepositional phrase)

例如:I learned several other foreign languages in addition to English.

besides=in addition(adverbial phrase)

例如:I learned English.  In addition, I learned several other foreign languages.

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(7)

請問ain’t的用法?

 

A. aint是am not, are not, is not的縮寫,但為 nonstandard spoken English(英文俗語),接受過良好教育的人或者在正式文件中不隨便用此字。

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(8)

何謂target language

 

A. target language(目標語)是外語教學中的術語。我們學英語,英語即是我們的

target language.

target language也是翻譯教學中的術語,它指譯語,如中譯英時,中文是source language(原語或稱譯出語),英文即是target language(譯語或稱譯入語)

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(9)

You bet. 是什麼意思?

 

A. You bet 是說 yes的加強說法 (You say you bet as an emphatic way of saying yes);
You can be sure; certainly. 即當然,一定。例如:
A: Are you going to study for IMBA at National Chengchi University?
B: You bet.

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(10)

何時要將句首的動詞加ing?

Ex. 1. Taking exercise is good to health. 2. Receiving praise and compliments sometimes makes people feel uncomfortable.這兩個句子都是以動詞開頭, 是因為它位在主詞位置的關係嗎?

 

A. 作動名詞用時。例如:Teaching is learning. (教學相長)
句中Teaching 與learning都是動名詞。teaching是主詞, learning是主詞補語,所以動名詞與位置無關。
Taking exercise中的taking不是動詞,而是動名詞 (gerund)。動名詞,顧名思義,既具動詞功能,也具名詞功能。
taking exercise中taking具有動詞功能,所以exercise是它的受詞。
taking exercise中taking不是動詞,而是動名詞,所以taking exercise是動名詞片語作該句的主詞。

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(11)

What the hell is wrong with you?

句子the hell「他X的」嗎?

 

A. hell 是咒罵語:「他X的」,「畜生」。例如:Hell!=Oh, hell.該死!
Go to hell! 去你的! 該死!
the hell 是口語,加強疑問句語氣:究竟、到底
例如:What the hell are you doing? 你究竟 / 到底在幹什麼?
What the hell is wrong with you? 你究竟 / 到底怎麼了?
不宜用於正式場合或對長輩用。

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(12)

古蹟是historic或是historical sites

 

A.    蹟是historic sites
historic
具有歷史意義的,歷史上有名的
例如:Tainan is a(或an) historic city(台南是一座歷史上有名的城市)。
historical
描述歷史的,基於歷史事實的
例如:Red Chamber Dream is a(或an)historical novel(紅樓夢是一本歷史小說)。
例如:historical costume(古裝) historical process (歷史發展過程)

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(13)

How to make sentences longer?

 

A.  Washingtons efforts to whip up(搧動) international condemnation of that countrys controversial human rights record failed.
句子不長可比作只有骨頭,沒有肉的句子。   骨頭是什麼?  表達句子主要意思那些字,例如上句中的Washington
s efforts failed. 「美國的努力失敗了」,是表達本句主要意思三個字,即本句的「骨頭」。

to whip up(搧動) international condemnation of that countrys controversial human rights record是不定詞作修飭語用,來說明什麼樣的「努力」,即本句的「肉」。

句子的長短與英文程度及練習有關,例如:
He is a student.

He is a diligent student.
He is diligent and respectful student.
He is intelligent, diligent, and respectful student.

He is a intelligent, diligent, and respectful student whom every teacher likes.

He is a intelligent, diligent, and respectful student whom almost every teacher likes.

 

又例如考試時,要達到規定字數,可化簡為繁:

He is energetic although he is seventy.

He is energetic although he is seventy years old.

He is energetic although he is seventy years of age

He is energetic in spite of the fact that he is seventy years of age.

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(14)

什麼是獨立分詞片語?

 

A.獨立分詞片語 (absolute participial phrase) 即有主詞的分詞片語 (participial phrase)。
例如:1. 分詞片語:Being sick, he did not come to school today.

=As he was sick, he did not come to school today.
2. 獨立分詞片語:It (主詞) being a fine day (分詞片語), we went for a walk.
=As it was a fine day, we went for a walk.

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(15)

a.m. & p.m.是哪幾個字的縮寫?

 

A. a.m. ante meridiem(拉丁文)的縮寫; p.m. post meridiem(拉丁文)的縮寫。
     ante
是字首,意為在時間、順序、位置上在前post是字首,意為在時間、順序上在
    
meridiem意為正午所以ante meridiembefore noon; post meridiemafter noon.
    
英文寫作antemeridian postmeridian.

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(16)

在標題中哪類詞不要大寫?

In titles, prepositions, articles, and conjunctions are not capitalized unless they begin the title.  All other words are capitalized.

Ex: The title of his composition is My Life in the United States.

Prepositions of more than four letters are frequently capitalized in titles.

Ex. The title of his composition is On Reading Between the lines.

For details, please read pp.66-81, Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric (金陵教授著  第九版第五刷)

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(17)

請問該如何學英文呢??

 

A. 三言兩語難說明。請往台北市文鶴書店(Tel: 23934497)翻閱前政大英語系主任、外語學院院長金陵教授著「英語英文怎麼學」一書(三版後新版,共25篇有關如何學習英語與英文的專文)或至政大英語系系圖翻閱。三十八年英語教學經驗,二十五篇專文幫助您 :
1. 節省學習時間 2. 加強學習效果  3. 縮短學習過程 4. 締造學習佳績
您可因此少為英語、英文奮鬥三、五年。本書不是空談懸樑刺骨的學習歷程,而是在細述立竿見影的學習方法。

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(18)

There are many persons who move to USA.

There are many persons move to USA.

 

Q. 以上兩句哪一句正磪?

A.第一句是對的。第一句也可改寫為:
There are many persons moving to the USA.  或Many persons move to the USA.
第二句是錯的,因為There are many persons move to the USA.是
混合結構
(mixed construction)
There are many persons 與 Many persons move to the USA.的混合。
是中式英文(Chinese English 或Chinglish)
正如:I have many relatives live in the USA.(我有很多親戚住在美國) 是中式英文一樣。
正磪的是:I have many relatives living in the USA.
或 I have many relatives who live in the USA.

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(19)

旋轉木馬怎麼說?

A.    roundabouts (英國用法British usage; merry-go-round 美國用法American usage)
與roundabout有關的英文諺語:
What one loses on the swings(鞦韆) one makes up on the roundabouts.
失之東隅,收之桑榆。

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(20)

broken-heartedhearted是過去分詞嗎?

 

A. broken-hearted 中的heart 不是動詞,所以hearted不是它的過去分詞,但是我們在它後面
加ed後成為假的過去分詞,文法上叫「假分詞」(pseudo-participle)。
其它的例子如: slim-waisted girl(細腰女郎),broad-minded man(寬宏大量的人), narrow-minded man(心地狹窄的人), long-legged girl(長腿女郎), one-sided love(單戀), many-sided man(多才多藝的人),male-centered society(男人為中心的社會)等。這些都屬於
Adj+N+ed+N.

另外有 N+N+ed+N 例如:stone-hearted man(鐵石心腸的人)。
還有present participle + N, past participle +N等共九種組合。詳見拙著
Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric(實用英文文法與修辭. 第九版第五刷 pp.153-158)

 

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