BBS Q & A 7 (1-20)

金 陵

 Questions and Answers

本站為對英文有興趣之同學解惑,在「政大貓空BBS站」及「台大椰林風情BBS站」的英文板上,上回答問題,並摘要選擇已回答的問題與答案,陸續登錄在本站BBS Q & A (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7)中,供網友參閱。

(1)

這樣的句子對嗎?
He came through the door running.


A. He came running.  He sat waiting. 在文法中學習分詞與動名詞時,一定見過與這兩句類似        的句子。在這兩句中的running & waiting 是分詞還是動名詞? 文法家(grammarians)中分兩  派:一派認為是動名詞,作副詞用(adverb of manner),「他跑著來」「他坐著等」修飾  came & sat; 另一派認為是分詞,作形容詞用,作主詞  he 的補語。

再來看He came through the door running.  running 應緊跟在came之後: He came running through the door. 「他經由門那兒他跑著來」。如果He came through the door running.  running 如果是分詞,則是修飾door,而 door非人,不能run; 如果是動名詞,則是修飾came,而離came 太遠。所以正確的、嚴謹的句子如下:
He came running through the door.

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(2)

這兩句中,一有逗號,一沒逗號,有沒有不同?

 1. He is a teacher, and I am a student.

2. He is a teacher and I am a student.

 

A.兩句皆可,沒有不同。通常兩個主要子句皆短時,在and之前不用逗號,兩個主要子句皆長時,在and之前用逗號。例如:

He is a teacher and I am a student. (沒逗號)

His father is an English professor at a famous university, and his mother is a chemistry teacher at a countryside senior high school. (有逗號)

 

(詳見拙著 Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric 第九版第五刷中pp.698, A Guide to Capitalization and Punctuation 政大同學可至英語系圖翻閱)

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(3)

Mary never thought of other people, but only of herself.
only of
是什麼意思? 為什麼要加of 而不用only herself?

A.   think of---考慮  Mary never thought of other people, but only of herself?不能省略 of, 因  think of連用的關係。herself 是of的受詞,而非 think的受詞 。
下面的句子則不要of, 因為play後面沒有介系詞:
 Mary never played basketball, but only baseball.

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(4)

He said that he loved me. He said he loved me.
何時不可省略that?

A. He said that he loved me.   He said he loved me.
that he loved me是名詞子句,作said的受詞。也可省 that : He said he loved me.
下列情況不能省:
1. 一句中有兩個或兩個以上的名詞子句時
   He said that he loved me and that he would marry me.(為了清楚看出他說了兩件事)
2. 名詞子句作主詞時
   That he must translate his thoughts into English makes him slow in writing and hesitant in speech.
3. 名詞子句作虛主詞
it 同位語時
   It is evident that he has no incentive to study.
4. 名詞子句作某一字同位語時
   The fact that she has inner grace (內在美) is more important.
   He denied the rumor that he cheated in the exam.
   The hope that he might get a scholarship to
Oxford encouraged him.
   (如您看到(4)中的句子省略that 也不要奇怪,因為是非正式)
(詳見拙著 Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric 第九版第五刷中 pp.132
134 Noun Clause, 政大同學可至英語系圖翻閱)
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(5)

One of the most beautiful natural wonders in the United States is the Grand
Canyon
, _______located in the northwestern Arizona.

正確答案是which is where is?

A. 正確答案是 which is.
為甚麼?因為 which 是關係代名詞,代名詞才可以做主詞或受詞,所以才可以說
. . . which is located in the northwestern Arizona.
where 是關係副詞,副詞不能做主詞或受詞。例如:
This is the house
which(關代) was bought by my father.
This is the house
where(關副) my father lived.  
where=in which (副詞片語)
This is the house in which my father lived.  或This is the house which my father lived in.

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(6)

 

同位語不用逗號跟限制關係代名詞子句情形一樣嗎?

 

A.    是的。例如:
My English teacher John Wu is gentle. (表示我不只一位英文老師)
My English teacher, John Wu, is gentle.( 表示我只有一位英文老)

My brother who is an English teacher got his driver licence today. (表示我兄弟中擔任英文老師的那一位)
My brother, an English teacher, got his driver licence today.(表示我只有一位兄弟)

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(7)

 

下面這兩句對嗎?

 

1. "I had encountered several good teachers when I was in school?"
2. "I have encountered several good teachers when I was in school."

A. 不對

I had encountered several good teachers (had + pp) 是過去完成式。過去完成式是表示事情發生在過去堛犒L去 (past in the past)
例如:She had married James before she met Alex. She met Alex after she had married James.  married met都發生在過去,但married 發生在先,met 發生在後,所以 met是過去,而married過去堛犒L去,或 His father had left for the U.S. when he was born.

1. "I had encountered several good teachers when I was in school?"
     was
是過去,encountered when I was in school同時發生,所以不能用過去完成式。

2. "I have encountered several good teachers when I was in school."
    encountered
when I was in school同時發生,而was是過去,自不能用現在完成式。
   
正確的句子是:I encountered several good teachers when I was in school.

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(8)

 

shake a leg是啥意思?

 

A. shake a leg (俚) 1. (通常用於命令)趕快;2. 跳舞。另有:

shake a loose leg 或 shake a free leg 過懶散(放縱,不檢點)的生活。

show a leg (俚) 1.露面;起身;2. (命令)打起精神!

stretch one’s leg (久坐之後)伸伸腿,活動一下筋骨

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(9)

 

為甚「人生而平等」All men are born equal中不用equally?

 

A. 「人生而平等」的英文原句是All men are created equal. 在一般大字典堙A查equal 大都有此句。本句中equal是形容詞,作主詞補語,例如:

He was born rich. 他生在有錢人家。

He died young. 他英年早逝。如用副詞equally則是修飾 are born, 便成為「平等地生」,沒有意義,所以不equally.

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(10)

 

1960s1960之後及s之前加不加標點?

 

A. 1960s或 1960’s  都是 1960年代 (1960 – 1969期間),正式寫法是 在1960之後加上標點 (apostrophe)即1960’s.  英文報紙上大都不加上標點 (apostrophe)。

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(11)

 

我想讀莎士比亞,有沒有比較簡單的讀本?

 

A. 如只想了解Shakespeare戲劇故事內容,又要英文簡單,我建議您讀Tales From Shakespeare (1807年出版,中譯本為莎士比亞戲劇故事集 莎士比亞的故事 ,或莎氏樂府本事)一書。此書是英國文學浪漫時期(The Romantic Age)的知名散文作家查理士藍姆(Charles Lamb1775-1834)與他的姐姐瑪麗藍姆(Mary Lamb)共同將莎士比亞劇本中的二十個改寫為簡潔流暢的散文。他改寫四個悲劇(Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, King Lear),瑪麗改寫十六個喜劇。不僅非英語系同學應該讀此書,英語系同學更應該讀。

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(12)

 

我聽過拼字規則I before E except after C, 為甚有的字不是這樣呢?

 

A.  沒錯I before E except after C,但是還有一個先決條件,那就是:When ei or ie is pronounced 長音e /i:/時,才 put i beforee except after c.
Put I before E:  achieve, thief, siege, belief, niece, chief, piece, field, grief, relief yield, etc.

except after C:  ceiling, receive, deceive, conceive, perceive, deceitful, receipt, etc.  Exceptions:  either, neither, seize, etc.

詳見本站主持人金陵教授著「實用英文文法與修辭」(Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric, pp.54-65第九版第五刷)中的英文15種拼字規則 (spelling rules)。

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(13)

 

雙十國慶告怎說?

A.  national day 是國慶日  national holiday  是國定假日
Today is the National Day of the Republic of China.
今天是中華民國國慶日。

Double Ten Day (Double Tenth Day) is the national day of ROC.
雙十節是中華民國國慶。
Independence Day is the national day of the United States.
獨立紀念日是美國國慶日。

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(14)

 

play piano 還是 play the piano

 

A. play the piano

演奏樂器時,樂器前加定冠詞 the 例如:
She practices playing the violin almost every day.
George plays the organ in the church on Sundays.
詳見本站主持人金陵教授著「實用英文文法與修辭」(Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric)第九版第五刷中pp.94
103, 共有 the用法 18 種。

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(15)

 

A: Where did he and his father go?
B: ______
(1) The zoo.           (2) The park.
(3) To Ben's home.      (4) The supermarket.
The answer is (3), but why not 1 or 2 ?

A.用完整的句子回答此句是:
They went to the zoo / to the park / to Ben
s home / to the supermarket.
我們不能回答:They went the zoo / the park / Ben
s home / the supermarket.
因為the zoo, the park, Ben
s home, the supermarket都是名詞片語,而went
不是及物動詞,所以要加 to , 成為介系詞片語,作副詞用,修飭went.
但He went there / home. 可不要加to, 因為在本句中 there / home 是副詞。

He went to his home. 則可,因為在本句中 home 作名詞用。

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(16)

 

choose & select 有何差異?

 

A. choose & select 在意義上差別不是很大,嚴格來說choose是挑選,select是精選。choose偏向感性的選擇,select偏向理性的選擇,即不受個人喜好所影响。例如:
 Fourteen Taipei resident have been selected by Taipei City Government to be cited as “honorable citizens”(榮譽市民) in 2002 in  recognition of their contributions toward making     Taipei a better place in which to live. (p.19, Tuesday, November 19, 2002  China Post),句中即不用chose而用selected.

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(17)

 

partly & in part有何差異?

 

A. partly=in part
為了句子有變化,有時用of + 名詞取代形容詞。例如:
of + beauty = beautiful She is of beauty.
 of+ importance = important   He is of importance.
而有的句中,不用副詞,而用 in, by, of, on, with + 名詞 取代副詞。例如:
in + N = adverb, in brief = briefly; in + comfort = comfortably;
in+ general = generally;  in+ haste = hastily; in + peace = peacefully;
of + N= adverb(極少) ,of+ late = lately ;
by + N = adverb, by + accident = accidentally; by + intention = intentionally ;
on + N= adverb,  on + purpose = purposely
with + N = adverb,  with + ease = easily;with + care = carefully
詳見本站「
語法與用法」中『樹上鳥在叫與鳥在樹上叫』。

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(18)

 

「來回票」怎說?

 

A.來回票 a round-trip ticket (Am.)               a return ticket(Br.)
單程票 a one-way ticket (Am.)                a single ticket(
Br.)
定期票 a commutation ticket (Am.)         a season ticket (
Br.)

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(19)

 

There are over 2000 varieties of snakes, most of which are harmless to humans.

為何不用most of them?

 

A. which 是關係代名詞,替代snakes, 如寫成兩句,則用them如下:

There are over 2000 varieties of snakes.  Most of them are harmless to humans.

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 (20)

 

請問save face是什麼意思會不會有點台灣英文
save one's face, lose one's face

 

A.    沒錯,跟中文很像,但不是中式英文(Chinese English或 Chinglish)。

save ones face 是挽回面子,lose ones face 是丟臉。 例如:

      After all those failures, the win saved his face.  Henry lost his face in his dealings with Robert.

 

To be continued

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