複合字面面觀(3-1)

許長庚

October 20, 2004

 

作者簡介:現任政治大學英文系兼任教授,教授新聞英語----閱讀。曾任政大公企中心語言組主任,政大英文系主任、外語學院院長。

 

 

複合字是新聞雜誌的精華(The beauty),也是其重要的特徵之一。雜誌中的每頁幾乎都有複合字的出現,頻率之繁非其他特徵能相提並論。

本人曾在拙作”美國新聞雜誌英文之分析”一書中,對複合字作有系統而完想的分析,共編成十大類型-幾乎可涵蓋三本著名雜誌﹝時代雜誌Time),新聞週刊Newsweek)及美國新聞及世界報導U.S. News & World Report)﹞中所出現的複合字。

複合字是一種語文的化學反應(Chemical reaction in language),也是語言上的經濟手法(linguistic economy device)。其轉換過程是先將子句(clause)變為片語(Phrase),再把片語變為字(Word)-即是複合字。其中的關係代名詞(Relative Pronoun)和介係詞(preposition),皆可刪除。且舉例說明:

例一:The girl who has big eyes is my student.

Ø          The girl with big eyes is my student.

Ø          The big-eyed girl is my student.

    (大眼睛的女孩是我的學生)

 

例二:That man who is conscious of image is here.

Ø          That man conscious of image is here.

Ø          That image-conscious man is here.

    (那位重形象的人在此)

 

本人將複合字十大類型,分期陸續作一較有系統的介紹。本期僅介紹第一大類型。

A V-ing as pivot-element type:

   (以V-ing為構成複合字的主要成份)

     A-1  (N-V-ing)

       The boy who hits the book is a straight-A student.

Ø          The book-hitting boy is a straight-A student.

(這位K書的學生是優等生)

The man who abides by the law is a good citizen

=The law-abiding man is a good citizen.

(奉公守法的人是好國民)

其他例子:

    Peace-loving people(愛好和平的人士)

    fact-finding group(視察團)

    注意:1. 本類型中的動詞一定是主動語態(active voice)

          2. 凡慣用語中由動詞與名詞組成的,皆可變成形容詞複合字。如:

             pass the buck--buck-passing(推諉責任的)

             lose face--face-losing(丟臉的)

             tighten ones belt--belt-tightening(節省的)

             twist ones arm--arm-twisting(強迫的)

    但是,慣用語中的名詞若是複數,必須把複數改為單數。例如:

             mend ones fences--fence-mending(改善關係)

             spill the beans--bean-spilling(洩漏秘密)

             name names--name-naming(指名帶姓指認出)

             call one names--name-calling(中傷)
            例外:

……….take painspainstaking(費時費力)

 

     A-2  (self-V-ing)

The clock which winds itself looks beautiful.

Ø          The self-winding clock looks beautiful

   (自動上發條的鐘看起來很美觀)

    The student who supports himself works at a fast-food restaurant.

Ø          The self-supporting student works at a fast-food restaurant.

   自力更生的學生在一家速食店工作)。

    本類型中的反身代名詞(Reflexive Pronoun),一律改成self-

 

 A-3  (Adj-V-ing)

  The pill which tastes bitter is a panacea.

Ø          The bitter-tasting pill is a panacea.

  (這苦味的藥丸是一種萬靈丹)

  The man who looks handsome is a movie star.

Ø          The handsome-looking man is a movie star.

  (這位長的很帥的人是電影明星)

  本類型中的動詞,僅限於連綴動詞(Linking Verbs:be, become, grow等)和感官動詞(Sense Verbs:look, sound, taste, smell, feel等)

 

     A-4  (Adv-V-ing)

a)The adverbs with-ly:

The bus which moves slowly broke down on the road.

Ø          The slowly-moving bus broke down on the road.

走得很慢的公車拋錨在路中)

The company which expands rapidly went bust/broke/under.

Ø          The rapidly-expanding company went bust/broke/under.

擴張迅速的公司倒閉了)

b)The adverbs such as hard, far, well, ill, fast, etc:

The man who works hard can go a long way.

Ø          The hard-working man can go a long way.

認真工作的人一定會成功)

The custom which reaches far is a good one.

Ø          The far-reaching custom is a good one.

影響深遠的習俗是好習俗)

c)The adverbs of frequency:always, usually often, sometimes, seldom and never.

The population which always increases is amazing.

Ø          The ever-increasing population is amazing.

不斷增加的人口相當驚人的)

The rule which often changes makes people confused.

Ø          The oft-changing rule makes people confused.

常常改變的規矩令人無法適從)。

本類型中,要特別注意-換成複合字過程中,應將always改成ever-,以及often改為oft-,其餘不必交換。

 

A- 5(P-V-ing)(P指介係詞(preposition))

The call which comes in is from John Doe.

Ø          The in-coming call is from John Doe.

(打進來的電話是張三打來的)

The call which goes out is from Richard Roe.

Ø          The out-going call is from Richard Roe.

(打出去的電話是李四打的)

但,in-comingout-going具有不同的意義,如:

in-coming ship(進港的船)

out-going ship(出港的船)

in-coming Premier(即將上任的行政院長)

out-going Premier(即將卸任的行政院長)

 

(待續)

 

    陵著 英語英文怎麼學

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