複合字面面觀(3-2

許長庚

October 27, 2004

 

作者簡介:現任政治大學英文系兼任教授,教授新聞英語----閱讀。曾任政大公企中心語言組主任,政大英文系主任、外語學院院長。

 

B. V-pp as pivot-element Type:

   (以V-pp<動詞過去分詞>為構成複合字的主要成分)

  B-1(N-V-pp):

      The dress which is made by a tailor costs much more expensive.

Ø          The tailor-made dress costs much more expensive.

(訂做的衣服較為昂貴)

The wine which is made at home tastes wonderful.

Ø          The home-made wine tastes wonderful.

國產的酒味道不錯)

 

  本類型中動詞,一定是被動語態(Passive Voice)。出現率相當頻繁。

  B-2(Self-V-pp):

      The scholar who was educated by himself passed away yesterday:

Ø          The self-educated scholar passed away yesterday.

(那位無師自通的學者昨天去世。)

The man who was made by himself started his business on a shoestring.

Ø          The self-made man started his business on a shoestring.

(那位白手起家的人靠極少的資本開始做生意。)

 

  本類型中的反身代名詞(Reflexive Pronoun),一律改成Self-字樣。

  B-3(Adj-V-pp)

      The food which is made ready is a steal.

Ø          The ready-made food is a steal.

現成的食物價格如檢來的便宜東西。)

The meat which is roasted fresh looks awful.

Ø          The fresh-roasted meat looks awful.

現烤的肉看起來很噁心。)

  B-4(Adv-V-pp):

1. The adverbs with the ending-ly.

The plan which was developed recently started with a bang.

Ø          The recently-developed plan started with a bang.

最近發展的計畫進行的有聲有色。)

2. The adverbs such hardfarwellillfast、etc.

The area which is hit hard has been declared a disaster zone.

Ø          The hard-hit area has been declared a disaster zone.

受損嚴重的地區被視為災區。)

3. The adverbs of frequency:alwaysusuallysometimesseldom and never.

The law which is always criticized must make some adjustment.

Ø          The ever-criticized law must make some adjustment.

一直受批評的法規應做適度的調整。)

 

  本類型中,在轉變複合字過程中,應將always改成ever-,和often改為oft-,其餘照原字不必更換。

B-5(V-pp-P) (P.係指介系詞Preposition)。

    The worker who was laid off staged a sit-in.

Ø          The laid-off worker staged a sit-in.

被裁員的工人開始靜坐抗議。)

    The plan which is well thought out works wonders.

Ø          The well-thought-out plan works wonders.

經過深思熟慮的計畫獲得令人驚奇的成功。)

 

   本類型中,複合字形成大部分來自慣用語。

C-Adj as pivot-element Type:

  (以形容詞為構成複合字的主要成份。)

C-1(N-Adj):

    The adjectives such as :-conscious、-foolish、-free、-greedy、-happy、-high、-hungry、-long、-mad、-proof、-prone、-proud、-sich、-rich、-short、-thirsty、-weary、-wide、-wise、-worthy、etc.

    The candidate who is conscious of image was defeated in the election.

    =The image-conscious candidate was defeated in the election.

      注重形象的候選人選舉失利。)

    The lawmaker who is greedy for power is looked down upon by the people.

    =The power-greedy lawmaker is looked down upon by the people.

    貪勢貪利的立委令人瞧不起。)

    The country which is rich in oil has a cradle-to-grave social welfare system.

    =The oil-rich country has a cradle-to-grave social welfare system.

    盛產石油的國家施行終生社會福利制度。)

 

     本類型中,形成複合字過程中,形容詞後的介系詞(be+Adj+prep+N),皆應刪
除。

 

     又此類型常以as..as型態出現。例子如下:

     The sword is as sharp as razor = The razor-sharp sword.

     銳如刀片的劍。)

 

其他例子如下:

dirt-cheap(賤如糞土的)

feather-light(輕如羽毛的)

fire-hot(火熱的)

ice-cold(冰冷的)

brand-new(全新的)

paper-thin(薄如紙,極微的)

pitch-dark(漆黑的)

rock-hard(硬如石的)

sky-high(高入雲霄的,極高的)

snow-white(雪白的)

C-2(Self-Adj):

    The girl who is conscious of herself seldom goes to the party.

    =The self-conscious girl seldom goes to the party.

    羞怯的女孩子很少參加宴會。)

 

     本類型中,不要忘記把反身代名詞,改成self-字樣。

C-3(Adv-Adj)

    The threat which is always present makes people ill at ease.

    =The ever-present threat makes people ill at ease.

    一直存在的威脅令人不安。)

    The student who is often absent was eventually kicked out of school.

    =The oft-absent was eventually kicked out of school.

    常常缺席的學生終於被學校開除。)

 

同樣的,本類型中的alwaysoften,勿忘記改的ever-、oft-字樣。

D-P as pivot-element Type:

(以介系詞為首的慣用語,成為製造複合字的主要成份)。

此類型最簡單,最容易。在更換過程中,隻字都不必更改更換,只在字與字間加上連字號(hyphen)即可。例子如下:

  behind-the-scenes meeting(幕後的秘密的會議

  a university is on the air.=An on-the-air university(空中大學)

  The patient who has a nurse around the clock.

  =The patience has a round-the-clock nurse service.

(那位病人24小時有護士照顧。)

We will welcome our guests with open arms.

=We will give our guests a with-open-arms welcome.

(我們將以最隆重歡迎來迎接我們的客人。)

 

其他例子如下:

on-the-run suspect(逃亡中的嫌犯)

still-at-large murder(消遙法外的兇手)

on-the-spot inspection(現場的視察)

across-the-board pay hike(全盤性的加薪)

under-the-counter sale(秘密的交易)

over-the-counter medicine(公開出售的藥,既成藥)

 

(待續)

 

    陵著 英語英文怎麼學

回上頁|回首頁|