如何使用英文標點符號(1)

 

September 12, 2002

 

如何正確地使用標點符號是學習英文必須具備的基本條件。標點符號能幫助作者清楚地傳達他的思想,使讀者對每一句話的結構與意義目瞭然。一段沒有標點符號的文章是很難看懂的。

 

1.    沒有標點符號難以了解的例句:

(a)    After eating the child left the table 乍看起來,好像是:「吃完那小孩以後」。有了標點符號之後的句子是:After eating, the child left the table. 「吃完之後,那小孩離開了餐桌」。

(b)    Inside the dog was growling乍看起來,好像是:「那隻狗的肚子裡在咆哮」。有了標點符號之後的句子是:Inside, the dog was growling. 「門裡面,那隻狗在咆哮」。

(c)    What do you think I mend for nothing and give you two dollars乍看起來,好像是:「我免費給你補()之外,還要送你兩塊錢,你以為如何?」。有了標點符號之後的句子是:
What! do you think I mend for nothing and give you two dollars?
「什麼!你以為我免費給你補()之外,還給你兩塊錢嗎?」

 

2.    增減標點符號的例句:

(a)Happily he died.
     
他含笑而終。本句中happily修飾died.

      Happily, he died.
     
真高興,他死了。本句中happily修飾 he died.

(b) No tax will be imposed on foreign fruit trees.

       外國進口之果樹將不徵稅。

       No tax will be imposed on foreign fruit, trees.

      外國進口之水果,樹將不徵稅。

(c) Dr. Johnson, our family doctor cannot come today.

       詹生醫師,我們的家庭醫師今天不能來。

       本句是向詹生醫師傳達一項訊息。

(d)    Dr. Johnson, our family doctor, cannot come today.

      我們的家庭醫師詹生今天不能來。
     
本句中our family doctor Dr. Johnson 同位語

 

常用的英文標點符號有十二種,它們是:

      l.Apostrophe 上標點(') 
2.Comma 
逗號(,) 
3.Colon 
冒號(:) 
4.Dash
破折號()
5.Exclamation Point 
驚嘆號(!) 
6.Hyphen  連字號(-)
7.Parentheses 
括號(  ) 
8.Period 
句號() 
9.Question Mark 
問號(?)
lO.Quotation Marks  引號("
")  
11.Semicolon 
分號(;) 
l2.Triple Dots
刪節號()

 

現將各種標點符號的用法分別說明如:

 

l. 上標點(')

   (l)表示字母的省略。Can't you read those road signs?

   (2)表示數字的省略。Today is Thursday, June 1, '89.

(3)表示字母的複數。There are five ss in sleeplessness.

(4)表示單字的複數。Our teacher told us not to use so many sos.

(5)表示數字的複數。Her 7s and 9s look alike.

(6)表示所有格。Its Vice Burns umbrella.

 

2. 逗號()

    (1) 用在以and ,but ,for, nor ,or ,so ,yet等連接詞連接的兩個主要子句之間。
         My father is fond of fishing, but my mother prefers hiking.

(2) 在複合句中,如果附屬子句在前,主要子句在後,用在附屬子句之後。

         While I was making a telephone call, someone knocked at my door

         注意:如果主要子句在前,則不用逗號。

(3) 用以分開非限制形容詞子句與主要子句。

         Her father, who is a famous scholar, teaches English.

(4) 用以分開非限制同位語

   Kent Howard, my English teacher, is from America.

(5) 用在yes, no ,well等字之後。

        (a) Yes, he is a hard-working student.

        (b) No, it is impossible.

        (c) Well, you may go if you insist.

(6) 向人說話時,用在對方名字或稱謂之後,之前或前後。

(a) John, come here.

(b) Open the door, John.

          (c) It is, Sir, not my fault. 

(7) 用以分開引用句

           (a) You are beautiful, he said.

           (b) Our teacher said, Freedom is not license.

           (c) No, she said, I was just testing your patience.

(8) 用以分開星期,月日,年份。

     On Sunday, May 28, 1989, her first child was born.

(9) 用以分開地名、省名、國名、街道名、巷弄名等

           Candy lives at 4 Alley 10, Lane 76, Ching Hua Street, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan. 

(10)用以分開一系列的單字,片語或子句。

            (a) Her mother sells tomatoes, potatoes, and peaches.

            (b) She ran up the stairs, across the porch, and into the house.

            (c) We all agreed that she was beautiful, that she was intelligent, and that she was ambitious.

(11)用以表示字的省略。

            The lion is the symbol of courage; the lamb, of meekness. (the lamb is the symbol of meekness).

(12)用在such asespecially的前面。

            (a) They enjoy outdoor sports, such as hiking and riding.

            (b)He likes all extracurricular activities, especially basketball playing.

(13)用以分開「乃此非彼」的結構。

            He wanted to see Cliff, not Steve.

(14)用在追問句之前。

            It is warm today, isnt it?

 

To be continued

 

譯自本人英文著作Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric
(
第九版第五刷)

 

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