如何使用英文標點符號(2)

金 陵

September 12, 2002

 

 

3. 冒號()
(1)
用在解釋或逐項列舉之前(as follows, the following as thesegiven  
      below
之後)

           (a) I bought the following articles: sheets, towels, and blankets

           (b) The table lamp consists of three parts: a stand, a bulb, and a shade.

(2) 用在正式或事務信函中稱謂之後。

            Dear Sir: Dear Mr. Reagan: Gentlemen:

           注意:在非正式或交際信函中稱謂之後用逗號。

           Dear Mary, Dear John,

(3) 用在數字之後,表示時間。

           Our class starts at 8:10 a.m. and ends at 12:00 noon.

(4) 用在較長的引用句或正式問句之前。

           (a) This is my favorite quotation: It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and reality of tomorrow.

           (b) The question is: What can we do for our country?

(5) 用在講釋第一個主要子句的第二主要句子之前。

            Her intention is obvious: she wants to marry him.

 

4. 破折號(--)
(1)
表示猶豫,句意的暫時中斷, 或思想的突然中斷。

           (a) II dont know. Youd better ask her.

           (b) The entire teaching facilitiesconsole, tapes, earphones, and tape recorderswere stolen last night.

           (c) Ill givelets see, what can I give?  

(2) 用以強調同位語

      She has only one interestfood.

(3) 用在結語之前。

    Professor Chu collects postage stamps, coins, sea shells, matchboxesin short,

anything that  interests him.

 (4) 用在未完成句之後
She said,
He was everything to me, but--

 

5. 驚嘆號()
    (1)
用在以強烈情感說出的字句之後。

         (a) What a surprise!

         (b) How beautiful a girl she is!

         (c) What a beautiful girl she is!

    (2) 用在祈使句之後。

        (a) Help! My house is on fire!

        (b) Be quiet!

 

6. 連字句(-)
     (1)
用以表示分數或連接由2199中的十位數及個位數。

          (a) Three-fourths of the freshman students are girls.

          (b) There are twenty-two boy student and ninety-eight girl students in the Department of English.

(2) 在行末連接分寫的單字。

          He is a graduate student of National Chengchi Uni-
          versity.

(3) 用以連接複合字中的各字

          We had a heart-to-heart talk last night.

 

7. 括號(   )
用來在句中附加評論或解釋。

      I saw the two students (they are lovers) kissing each other.

 

8. 句號( . )

(1) 用在敘述句,祈使句及禮貌問句之後。

     (a) I wish to enter an ideal university.

     (b) Turn in your papers, please.

     (c) Will you please send me a copy of your university catalogue.

(2) 用在間接問句之後。

      She asked if you would come to her birthday party.

(3) 用在縮寫名字和其他字的第一個字母之後,或縮寫字之後。

      (a) Prof. W. W. Wang has returned to Taipei. (如果不用名字,則要用
                 Professor Wang.)

      (b) Dr. Tang earned his Ph. D. degree from Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. (District of Columbia).

 

9.  問號()

(1) 用在直接問句之後。

     Do you find English writing difficult?

(2) 用在括號中表示存疑。

     Chaucer was born in 1340(?) and died in 1400.

 

10. 引號( )

   (1) 用在引用句的前後。
         (a) Our teacher said,
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

         (b) I dont like her, she explained, because she is far too proud.

(2) 如果引用句本身是敘述句而且位在一個問句之後,必須先用引號,再用問號。

   Did he say, I am going to college next year?

   如果引用句本身是問句,則必須先用問號,再用引號。

   Did he say, Are you going to college next year? 

(3) 引用文句有兩段或兩段以上時,只在每一段開始時和最後一段結束時用引號。

         Mom and Dad did not come home with them because Sunday was parents day off; the boys did the housework and cooked the meal of the week, while Father and Mother stayed on for church service.

But by the time diner was ready the boy had climbed into bed. The shoe had to be cut off his swollen and discolored leg. Why on earth hadnt he told somebody? Go quick and fetch the doctor!

(4) 引用句中另有引用句時, 用單引號表示

          She said, I quite agree to the saying To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness on earth.

注意:美式英文中,雙引號在外,單引號在內,英式英文中恰好相反。

 

11. 分號 ()

     (1) 用以連接兩個或兩個以上的主要子句。

          (a) The singular form is mouse; the plural form is mice.

          (b) she made up her mind; she laid her plans; she began her trip.

     (2) 用在連接兩個主要子句的連接副詞 (consequently, however, moreover, nevertheless, so, still, then, therefore, thus, etc.)之前。

           He did not pass the examination; therefore, he was unhappy.

     (3) 用在連接兩個主要子句的連接詞 (and, but, or, nor, for)之前,當主要子句本
有逗號時。

           Henry, a freshman, lives at home; but Karl, his brother, does not.

 

12. 刪節號 ()

      用以表示引用句中省略的文字。如刪節號用在句尾,另加原句句尾的標點符號,如果是問號,則在刪節號之後加問號 (?)

        In his essay LUCK Winston Churchill wrote: The longer one lives, the more one realizes that everything depends upon chance a mans own contribution to his life story is continually by an external superior power. 

        注意:英文中表示「等等」用etc.而不是用刪節號()

 

 

譯自本人英文著作Practical English Grammar and Rhetoric
(
第九版第五刷)

 

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