it用法知多少

 

October 18, 2009

 

我們學習英文文法,在名詞(noun)之後,一定會學到代名詞(pronoun)其中之一是 it.  查英漢字典,it的解釋是:(文法)「虛字」(expletive),在句子結構上是必要的、但却是無意義的字。文法上it稱為代名詞,代替動物或事物。當它用在句子當中的時候,它本身並不具備任何意義,所以我們才會稱它為「虛字」。

 

it在句子中的十一種用法如下:

                         

l.        It is three oclock now. (time, It 代替時間)

 

2.      It is rather hot today. (weather, It 代替天氣)

 

3.      It is about five miles from my home to the university.
(space, distance, It
代替空間、距離)

 

4.      I bought a dog yesterday. I like it.
(It refers to a dog)
(It
是代名詞,代替動物a dog「狗」)

 

5.      When we have lost our health, we value it most.

(It is a pronoun, and it refers to our health.)
(It
是代名詞,代替事 our health.)

 

6.      It is difficult to write English.
(It
represents the real subject to write English / appositive
subject.)
(to write English
在文法上稱為infinitive phrase, 即不定詞片語)
(It
代替真主詞to write English.)
(to write English
也稱為虛主詞It
同位語)
(
亦可以寫作To write English is difficult.)

 

7.      Our teacher makes it a requirement to prepare lessons beforehand. (It represents the real object to prepare lessons beforehand /appositiveobject.)
(it
代替真受詞to prepare lessons beforehand.)
(to prepare lessons beforehand
在文法上稱為infinitive phrase, 即不定詞片語)
(to prepare lessons beforehand
也稱為虛受詞it
同位語.)

 

8.      It is difficult for me to write English.
(It
represents the real subject for me to write English / appositive
subject)
(It
代替真主詞for me to write English)
(for me to write English
在文法上稱為infinitive clause, 即不定詞子句,雖然它並不具備子句的條件)
(for me to write English
也稱為虛主詞it的同位語.)

 

9.      It is true that he is a good student.
(It
represents the real subject that he is a good student / appositive
subject)
(It
代替真主詞that he is a good student)
(that he is a good student
是名詞子句)
(that he is a good student
也稱為虛主詞it
同位語)
(
亦可改寫為That he is a good student is true.)

 

10.   It was I that started the quarrel.
(
It be . . . that. is used to emphasize the subject,
即加强句中主詞I.)
(I started the quarrel.
即非加强句)

 

11.   It was Bert that I met at a bus station in Taipei City.
(
It be . . . that. is used to emphasize the object,
即加强句中受詞Bert.)
(I met Bert at a bus station.
即非加强句)

 

※ 詳見 實用英文文法與修辭(九版六刷)

 

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