從「字首 (pre-),字幹 (dict),字尾 (-able) =predictable

談英文單字記憶十大要訣

On Ten Ways to Gain Word Power

(Outline)

 

July 3, 2000

A.前言 (Introduction)

 

1.     英文字彙的種類

2.     記憶法

3.     英文字彙的七種結構

 

B. 英文單字記憶十大要訣 (Ten Ways to Gain Word Power)

 

C.後語 (Conclusion)

 

******************************************

 

A.  前言:

  

1. 英文字彙的種類 (Kinds of Vocabularies)

 

Two basic vocabularies:

閱讀字彙(reading vocabulary

寫作字彙(writing vocabulary

6,000 wordsreading voc. x 1/5 = 1,200 wordswriting voc.

 

新聞週刊(Newsweek-------- 16,000 words

時代雜誌(Time Magazine--- 20,000 words

 

2. 記憶法(mnemonics

 

 1.(02272-829    04223-3432     (02) 861-6161 ICRT     

 

 2.東西羅馬滅亡日,一師無散 / 士氣留。(諧音)公元 1453 / 476

 

 3Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett's love letters amounted to 573.(375)

 

 4.  isolate        使孤立                         5.   dogma          教條

 6.  mason          泥水匠                       7.   parole           假釋

 8.  hostage        人質                           9.   seesaw          蹺蹺板

10.  kidnap         綁架                          11. callus         (生在皮膚上的)繭

12.  mustache 長在嘴唇上面的鬍子  13.  capsize        翻覆

14.  monsoon        雨季                       15.  assassination  暗殺

 

3. 英文字彙的七種結構 (Seven Structures of English Words)

 

   字首(prefix  字根(root  字幹(stem  字尾(suffix

 

(1)                                                                

             pre-                         dict (tell, say)                  -able                                                                                                                                                                    

             in-                           credbelieve              -ible

             a-                            the (god)                          -ist

 

(2)      字首  +  字首  + 字幹   + 字尾    +  字尾    = 單字  

 

                              pre           dict                                        predict

 

                              pre           dict       able                           predictable

 

                              pre           dict        ive                            predictive

 

                              pre          dict          able            ly           predictably

 

                             pre          dict           able            ity          predictability

 

                            pre           dict           or                             predictor

 

                            pre           dict            ion                          prediction

 

          un              pre           dict           able                         unpredictable

 

          un              pre          dict            able           ly           unpredictably

 

          un              pre          dict            able           ity         unpredictability

 

      

          1+9=10 words              衍生字 (derivative)

 

(3)      字首    +  字根    +       字尾       =  單字

 

                             imagine                                   imagine

 

                             imagine              able               imaginable (means)

 

      

字首    +  字根     +      字尾       =  單字

 

                               imagine             ary              imaginary (story)

 

                               imagine             ation           imagination (realm)

 

                               imagine             ative            imaginative (writer)

 

            un               imagine             able             unimaginable

 

            un               imagine             ative            unimaginative

               

            1+6=7 words

 

 

(4)    字 根   +     字 尾      =  單 字

 

         respect            able              respectable (teacher)

 

         respect            ful                respectful  (student)

 

         honor             able               honorable   (judge)

 

         honor            ary                 honorary    (doctorate)

 

         digest            ible                 digestible  (food)

 

         digest           ive                   digestive   (system)

 

         defense         ible                  defensible  (position)

 

         defense         ive                    defensive   (weapon)

 

(5)    字首  +  字幹                            字首  +  字幹

 

         (1) centipede (hundred / foot)              (2) bigamy (twice / wedding)

 

         (3) apathy (without / feeling)                (4) antipathy

 

         (5) sympathy                                        (6) telepathy

 

         (7) tricycle                                            (8) concubine (with / lie

                                                                            without marriage)

 

(6)   字幹  +  字尾                             字幹  +  字尾      

 

         (1) audible (hear)                                   (2) tangible (touch)

 

         (3) portable (carry)                                (4) mortal (death)

 

         (5) visible (see)                                       (6) vocal (voice)

 

         (7) mental (mind)                                   (8) lingual (tongue)     

 

(7)    字幹  +  字幹                            字幹  +  字幹

 

      (1) biography (life)                               (2) astronomy (star)

 

         (3) philosophy (love)                            (4) patricide (father)

 

         (5) suicide (self)                                    (6) aqualung

 

         (7) manuscript (hand)                           (8) homograph ((same) 

 

 

B. 英文單字記憶十大要訣

 

1)字首法(prefix):

 

           (1) antemeridian (a.m.) (before)        (2) postmeridian (p.m.) (after)

 

           (3) autograph                                    (4) centigrade

 

(5) miniskirt (small)                         (6) imbalance(beforeb.m.p.)

                                                                 immoral / impossible                     

 

(7) illogical (before l/r)                    (8) monosyllable (alone)

    irregular

 

(9) introvert (within)                       (10) microfilm (very small)

 

2)字幹法(stem):

 

            (1) pseudonym (false)                  (2) insecticide (killing)

 

(3) tenable (hold) xxxx              (4) bronchitis(bronchi)

                                                                      pneumonia (肺炎)

 

            (5) malnutrition (bad)                   (6) monologue (talk)

 

            (7) aqualung (water)                     (8) prospect (look)

                                                                       retrospect

            (9) geology (earth)                        (10)intact (touch)    

 

3)字尾法(suffix----adj. / noun / verb):

 

          (1) teenage                                          (2) entrance (enter)

 

          (3) attendant                                       (4) registrar (register)

 

          (5) bravery (n.)                                   (6) rapidity

               bakery  (a place of business)               studidity

 

          (7) cigarette (small)                            (8) blacken

 

          (9) beautify                                         (10)booklet (small)

    

 

(4) 類似法(similarity:

 

    (1) birth girth                                        (2) vacation vocation

        ( birth control / girth control )

 

    (3) empire umpire (裁判)                     (4) preposition proposition (建議)

 

(5)   letter litter (垃圾)                        (6) brain drain (貨幣外流)
                                                             (brain drain=
人才外流)

                                      

    (7) middle meddle (干涉                      (8) number lumber (木材) 

 

    (9) pleasant pheasant (雉雞)                (10)simple sample (樣本)

 

(5) 聯想法(association:

 

     (1) night knight                                    (2) diploma diplomat

 

     (3) ground aground                              (4) issue tissue

 

     (5) discuss discus                                  (6) table tablet

(7)mother smother (窒息)                     (8) plane plan

(9) stage stag (公鹿)                             (10)anger danger

                                                   (Anger is one letter short of danger)

                                                                

 (6) 拆字法(division:    

                               

     (1) breakfast break-fast                         (2) candidate can-did-ate

 

     (3) carnation car-nation                         (4) eggplant egg-plant

 

     (5) legislate leg-is-late                            (6) lieutenant lieu-ten-ant

 

     (7) attest at-test                                       (8) papaya papa-ya  

 

     (9) pronunciation __  pro-nun-CIA-tion

                                                                         (10) Churchill Church-ill

        

7)發音法(pronunciation):

 

    (1) Sep-tem-ber                                               (2) O-c-to-ber                              

 

    (3) No-vem-ber                                               (4) De-cem-ber

 

    (5) va-can-cy                                                  (6) i-den-ti-fi-ca-tion

 

    (7) pro-fes-sor                                                 (8) pro-nun-ci-a-tion

 

    (9) u-ni-ver-si-ty                                              (10) ac-ci-den-tal-ly

 

(8) 規則法(Spelling Rules):

 

     prefer-red / prefer-ence / edit-ed /

     achieve  /  receive  (When ei or ie is pronounced /i/, put i before e except after c.)

 

     (1) achieve                                                      (2) belief

 

     (3) chief                                                           (4) field

 

     (5) grief                                                            (6) niece

 

     (7) piece                                                          (8) pierce

 

     (9) relief                                                          (10)thief

 

after c:

 

     (1) ceiling                                                       (2) deceive

 

     (3) receive                                                      (4) conceit

 

     (5) deceit                                                        (6) receipt

 

     (7) conceive                                                   (8) perceive

 

Exceptions:

 

     (1) either    (2) neither   (3) seize 

 

 (9) 強記法(concentration:

   

     (1) aknowledge    a_knowledge         (2) enviroment         enviro_ment

 

     (3) goverment     gover_ment             (4) grammer            gramm_r

 

     (5) indit               indi_t                      (6) mathmatics         math_matics

 

     (7) pasttime        pas_ime                   (8) pronounciation    pron_nciation

 

     (9) talktive          talk_tive                  (10)unforgetable       unforget_able                                                                              

 

 (10) 卡記法(words on small cards:

 

 

     aftermath

 

  result

                   

 Misery is often the

 aftermath of war.

                                                                       

 

後語:

      A word is not yours unless you can use it in a meaningful

      sentence or recall it when you need it.recognition,

      pronunciation, spelling, usage      

 

以上為本人演講大網。近年來已在 政治大學外語學院,台北教師研習中心,台中中正文化中心,經濟部本部,新竹經濟部專業人員究研中心,台北商專,科見美語台北分校,科見美語台中分校,科見美語高雄分校,美加留學中心,學習出版社等地演講或上課五十餘場。

 

|回上頁|回首頁